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Biology
Biology





1. Scientists Decipher Missing Piece Of First-responder DNA Repair Machine

Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Scripps Research Institute have uncovered the role played by the least-understood part of a first-responder molecule that rushes in to bind and repair breaks in DNA strands, a process that helps people avoid cancer.
  • With this final piece, the scientists can reveals how lifes work at a fundamental level and also they can improve the development of cancer treatments.
  • A protein complex machine called the MRN is abel to break down the DNA double helix and stop the cell fromd ividing.It also launches an error free DNA repair process called homologous recombination. This helps replace deffective genes. If these are left unrepaired, then the breakage can lead to a rapid increase in cancer cells.
The last piece of the MRN puzzle falls into place: Nbs1 molecules extend from the DNA repair machine like two flexible arms, as revealed by recent research at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source. In this illustration, the MRN complex bridges a DNA double-strand break where the green and blue DNA sections meet.
The last piece of the MRN puzzle falls into place: Nbs1 molecules extend from the DNA repair machine like two flexible arms, as revealed by recent research at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source. In this illustration, the MRN complex bridges a DNA double-strand break where the green and blue DNA sections meet.























Reference:
John Tainer and Paul Russell et al. Nbs1 Flexibly Tethers Ctp1 and Mre11-Rad50 to Coordinate DNA Double-Strand Break Processing and Repair. Cell, Oct. 2, 2009

2. What missing link?
The missng links is another term of "transitional" fossils. We can also say evidence of evolution. The idea of missing link is from lowly corals through higher organisms such as birds and mammals to humans. The scientists knew this is misconception. Life does not progress up a hierarchical labber from low to high. But some creature has same an ancester, yet they are different being. For example, apes and humans split from a common ancester 7 million years ago. In 1861, the first specimen of Archaeopteryx was discovered. Archaeoptery is a classic transitional form between dinosaurs and bird. In human evolution, we have no trace of Homo Sapiens can be found beyond 80000 - 100000 years ago.
The scientists tryng answer these questions:
  • Who are we?
  • Where did we come from?
external image missinglinkdebate.jpg
​Refernce:Prothero, Donald. (2008). What missing link?. NewScientist, 35-41.



3. Missing Link (New info.)

On May 19, 2009, the Germany scientists found a new "transitional" fossil that one of ancester of humans. The fossil is 47 million years old. The scientist says "This is first link to all humans." They called this fossil, "Ida."

Refernce: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLbL1OHU9ZM



4. Clam clean up

Clams naturally clean water by absorbing toxins in their tissues as they draw in water. Many of our streams and rivers are contaminated with pollutants like pesticides, lead, arsenic and PCBs. This is very inexpensive way to clean up the pollutions. Clams are filter-feeders, meaning they draw water into their shells, remove the food they find, and then draw in more food-rich water to continue feeding. This means that lots of water works its way through their shells. The muscle of the clam gathers not only food, but other material suspended in water during this process, which can lead to the accumulation of toxins and pollutants.

external image 2009-01-10.jpg


Reference:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2009/0110-clam_cleanup.htm
The //American Geophysical Union// contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this report.

5. Possible Fix For Global Warming?
Environmental Engineers Use Algae To Capture Carbon Dioxide
Engineers have designed a simple, sustainable and natural carbon sequestration solution using algae. A team at Ohio University created a photo bioreactor that uses photosynthesis to grow algae, passing carbon dioxide over large membranes, placed vertically to save space. The carbon dioxide produced by the algae is harvested by dissolving into the surrounding water. The algae can be harvested and made into biodiesel fuel and feed for animals. A reactor with 1.25 million square meters of algae screens could be up and running by 2010.



Reference:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2007/0407-possible_fix_for_global_warming.htm
The American Geophysical Union, American Society for Microbiology, and the Optical Society of America contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this report.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yx3qonMjrnU


6. Global Warming - Climate Change

The meterologists say that we are going to have extreme climate change soon. They collected datas from 9 different countrys, and they could predict what is going to happen in few years. They say the climate change will affect on such as ability of farming and nature of crops. Many people will have to move away from the sea because the sea level is increasing. The climate change will cause many problem.


Reference:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2006/0205-harder_rain_more_snow.htm
The //American Meteorological Society// contributed to the information in the TV portion of this report.

7. To a Mosquito, Matchmaking Means 'Singing' in Perfect Harmony
The researchers find out that when mosquitos are finding a partner of the right species type, male and female, they are using "singing" in perfect harmony; they are using this harmony to attract a mate of right species. Those harmonys are producing by frequency of their wing beats in flight. The researchers said one of the mosquito is alto and others are soprano.
external image 091231164739.jpg
Reference:
http://www.usnews.com/science/articles/2010/01/05/to-a-mosquito-matchmaking-means-singing-in-perfect-harmony.html
Adapted from materials provided by Cell Press, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

8. Smoking Cessation May Actually Increase Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes


The smoking can develop type 2 of diabetes, but the researchers suggested that quitting smoking is actually increasing risk of developing type 2 diabetes in short term. The researchers found that people who quit smoking have a 70 percent increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the first six years without cigarettes as compared to people who never smoked. Surprisingly, people who smoking everyday, the risk was lower, but still it was 30% higher than people who never smoked. The message is "Do not smoke!!!!". If you are gaining weight while smoking, it will increases risks of developing diabetes.


external image 100104181519.jpg

Reference:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100104181519.htm
Adapted from materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.


9. Evolutionary Surprise: Eight Percent Of Human Genetic Material Comes From A Virus

The researchers find out that about eight percent of human genetic material comes from a virus and not from our ancestors; the research showed that the genomes of humans and other mammals contain DNA derived from the insertion of bornaviruses, RNA viruses whose replication and transcription takes place in the nucleus. Until now, retroviruses were the only viruses known to generate such endogenous copies in vertebrates. But scientists have found that non-retroviral viruses called bornaviruses have been endogenized repeatedly in mammals throughout evolution. Scientists said this virally transmitted DNA may be a cause of mutation and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood disorders.

external image 100107103621.jpg












Reference:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100107103621.htm
Masayuki Horie, Tomoyuki Honda, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Yuki Kobayashi, Takuji Daito, Tatsuo Oshida, Kazuyoshi Ikuta, Patric Jern, Takashi Gojobori, John M. Coffin & Keizo Tomonaga. Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes. Nature, 2010; 463 (7277): 84 DOI: 10.1038/nature08695

10. Study Finds Origin of Tasmanian Devil Cancer


On 1996, the carnivorous marsupials are facing a deadly and mysterious disease that has been decimating their numbers since it was first reported. The researcher find out that the cancer probably abandoned its original host long before becoming a parasite of the devils. They also confirmed that the tumors are passed from one devil to another by physical contact. The cancer cells that spread from animal to animal are genetically identical, each having originated from a single line of cells. Experts say that without intervention, the disease could wipe them out within 50 years. According to the study, a protein, called periaxin, could be used to diagnose the disease and possibly exploited to find a cure.
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Reference:
http://news.discovery.com/animals/study-finds-origin-of-tasmanian-devil-cancer.html


11. Rats and Junk Foods

The scientists observed that the more junk food the rats ate, the more they wanted to eat—a behavior very similar to that of rats addicted to heroin, a dangerous drug. They studied the “pleasure center” of rats’ brains. The pleasure center is a complicated network of nerve cells. Together, these cells work as the body’s reward system. If the animal exercises or eats, the cells reward the animal by releasing chemicals into the body that make it feel good. And when the body feels good, animal or a person want to do it again. What they did was they fed high calory food to a group of rats, and they fed a regular, nutritious diet food to another group of rats. Then they came up with a simple reward system. They received by running on a wheel. The more the rat ran, the more pleasure it received. The rats that had been eating junk food started running more and more. This is telling us that their pleasure centers were becoming less sensitive and the junk food didn’t make them feel good unless they ate more and more. The same process happens in the brains of drug addicts.

external image user2197_1157732587.jpg


Reference:
http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20091028/Note3.asp